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NATO, Trump, and the Return of the Burden-Sharing Debate
As North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) leaders prepare for a summit meeting in Brussels on May 24-25, they face heightened uncertainty about the future of the Alliance. U.S. President Donald Trump, like his predecessors, has voiced support for NATO while emphasizing the need for a more equitable defense spending burden within the Alliance. Unlike his predecessors, Trump has suggested that the U.S. may not aid NATO allies when attacked if they do not meet the Alliance’s non-binding pledge to spend at least 2% of GDP on defense. (Read More)

Streit Council Advisory Board Member Brendan Simms on the Post-Brexit European Order
The challenges facing the United Kingdom over the next two years are numerous and increasing by the day. All of these issues are hugely important and they are closely interconnected. At root, however, they are a question of order, not so much of the “rules-based” global international community, significant though that is, but of the European order around which the world system was originally constructed and that remains – for the UK, at least – the primary pivot. (Read More)


The European Union in 2017: Fragmentation or Integration?

As the European Union (EU) approaches the 60th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome, its leaders and institutions face a rising tide of political risk. Long-held and growing doubts about the EU’s ability to reduce unemployment, stem migration, and counter terrorism have set the stage for electoral gains by euroskeptic parties in the Netherlands, France, Germany, and – if an early election is called – in Italy. These risks are compounded by Russia’s support for euroskeptic parties; the uncertain fate of the EU-Turkey refugee deal; Brexit negotiations; and an increasingly likely economic downturn. What can be done to strengthen the Union? (Read More)


Streit Council Advisory Board Member Brendan Simms co-authors a new book: Donald Trump: The Making of a World View
On November 8, 2016, Donald Trump won the American presidential election, to the joy of some and the shock of many across the globe. Now that Trump is Commander-in-Chief of the most powerful country on Earth, Americans and non-Americans alike have been left wondering what that means for the world. It has been widely claimed that Trump's foreign policy views are impulsive, inconsistent and that they were improvised on the campaign trail. Drawing on interviews from as far back as 1980, historians Brendan Simms and Charlie Laderman show that this assumption is dangerously false in this new book. (Read More)

New Book edition by Streit Council Advisory Board Member Stanley R. Sloan
The latest edition of Stanley R. Sloan's book on transatlantic security relations - Defense of the West: NATO, the European Union and the Transatlantic Bargain (Manchester University Press, 2016) - surveys the history of NATO, analyzes interactions between contemporary internal and external threats facing the Alliance, and offers a net assessment of its future. Click here for his summary of the book, and here for peer reviews.


Transatlantic Relations and Global Governance News

New cyberattack spreads in Europe, Russia and U.S.
27 June 2017 – The New York Times
A cyberattack struck computer systems in Russia, the U.S., Ukraine, and other countries, with several companies and government agencies confirming they have been targeted by ransomware resembling last month's WannaCry attacks. The new attack uses the same hacking tool as WannaCry, which was developed by the U.S. National Security Agency, according to a computer security firm. It is not clear who is behind the attack.
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Kiev car bomb kills colonel in Ukrainian military intelligence
27 June 2017 – Reuters
Ukraine's defense ministry confirmed that a colonel in the country's military intelligence was killed in a car bomb in Kiev on Tuesday, which it called a "terrorist incident." Colonel Maksim Shapoval was killed in the explosion, according to a ministry statement, but neither police nor the ministry provided further details on the attack.
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Swiss call time out in push on EU ties as Brexit talks begin
27 June 2017 – The New York Times
As Brexit negotiations continue, many mainstream Conservative parties in Switzerland are wary of completing a new treaty with the EU that would strengthen the ties between the two. The treaty would allow for closer ties in fields such as financial markets, but there are concerns that a deal would upset Swiss voters. Without the agreement, Switzerland must rely on more than 100 bilateral agreements to ease access to the European single market.
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Syria will “pay a heavy price” for another chemical attack, White House says
27 June 2017 – The New York Times
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is reportedly preparing another chemical attack, according to the White House, which warned that Assad would "pay a heavy price" if a chemical attack takes place. The White House said that current preparations by the Syrian government appear similar to ones determined by Western intelligence officials to have taken place before a chemical attack in April.
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EU, global mayors to tackle climate, energy challenges
26 June 2017 – New Europe
In Brussels on June 27th, the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy will hold its inaugural meeting according to a statement by the European Commission on Monday. The Co-Chairs that will convene the meeting are European Commission Vice President for Energy Union Maroš Šefčovič and former mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg. Ahead of the meeting, Šefčovič stated that the role of cities in combating climate change has become more pertinent, especially in the wake of the decision by U.S. President Donald Trump to pull out of the Paris Agreement.
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Brexit: EU citizens living in UK will have to join special ID register
26 June 2017 – The Guardian
Under British Home Office proposals, all 3 million EU nationals residing in Britain will have to apply for inclusion on a “settled status” register if they would like to stay in the country post-Brexit. The policy paper suggests an online system to process applications that will offer applicants the same “indefinite leave to remain” status as many non-European nationals who have also lived in the UK longer than five years. This EU “settled status” could require an identity card backed up by entry into a register or central database.
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Almost half of highly skilled EU workers “could leave UK within five years”
26 June 2017 – The Guardian
According to new research from the consultancy firm Deloitte, around one third of non-British workers are considering leaving the UK; the most likely of those to leave are highly skilled workers from the EU. The research focusing on the impact of Brexit on the jobs market found that 47% of highly skilled workers from the EU are thinking of leaving the UK within the next five years.
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EU must get more Russian guarantees over gas pipeline plan - Ukraine
26 June 2017 - New York Times
On Monday, Ukraine urged the European Union to seek more guarantees on energy security from Russia before building the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline, saying it could have “dangerous consequences” by leaving the EU reliant on Russian supplies. The pipeline project is designed to double the amount of gas Russia pumps to Germany and was agreed to last year between European states and Gazprom.
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Europe vs Russia: Worried by Putin, Latvians and Lithuanians back EU military alliance
26 June 2017 – Newsweek
According to a Eurobarometer poll, there is widespread public support for an EU army in the Baltic states. After a failed push in 2015 by EU Commission President Juncker, the EU army idea was revived earlier this year by French and German leaders. The highest levels of support are found in the Netherlands and Belgium while support in the UK is the lowest in the EU.
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In victory for Trump, U.S. Supreme Court revives his travel ban
26 June 2017 – Reuters
The U.S. Supreme Court held up parts of President Trump’s controversial ban of people from 6 Muslim majority countries. All entrants from these countries who do not have preexisting strong connections through family or businesses are not permitted into the country.
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UK Parliament investigates cyberattack on user accounts
24 June 2017 – ABC
UK officials are investigating a cyberattack on the British Parliament following "unauthorized attempts to access parliamentary user accounts," with the UK's National Cyber Security Center and National Crime Agency looking into the incident. The attacks were reportedly an attempt to specifically target lawmakers' email accounts, with several losing access when outside Westminster.
(Read More)

Hard Brexit under threat as MPs from all parties plan alliance to defeat Theresa May’s plans
24 June 2017 – The Independent
Although the new British Parliament is only a few days old, MPs from all parties are planning an alliance to combat PM Theresa May’s plans for a hard Brexit. Strategies to amend future legislation are being drawn up to force ministers to listen to business groups and to demonstrate to the EU that the Parliament wants a “softer” Brexit. One target is the Immigration Bill.
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Brussels gives cold shoulder to May’s proposals for EU citizens
23 June 2017 – France 24
On Friday, at the end of the EU summit, French President Emmanuel Macron stated that the proposals from UK PM Theresa May on protecting the rights of EU nationals in the UK post-Brexit were, “not a breakthrough, to put it conservatively.” German Chancellor Angela Merkel firmly agreed with Macron’s sentiment on the offer. The proposal was also criticized by London’s mayor Sadiq Khan, who asserted that it was woefully insufficient.
(Read More)

ECB seeks control over London trading after “Brexit”
23 June 2017 – The New York Times
On Friday, the European Central Bank took steps to ensure that “it can oversee trillions of euros in London trading of derivatives and other risky securities” post-Brexit. This move demonstrates that the UK’s action of leaving the EU could force a realignment of global financial markets and undermine London’s status as an international trading center. The ECB asked for a change to EU legislation so it can monitor clearinghouses after the urging of the European Commission to do so.
(Read More)

Brexit: EU leaders says UK offer could “worsen situation”
23 June 2017 – BBC News
European leaders are strongly criticizing British Prime Minister Theresa May’s offer to EU nationals living in the UK. European Council President Donald Tusk deemed it as “below expectations” while German Chancellor Angela Merkel stated that there had been “no breakthrough” on the issue. May conceded that there are differences between the two negotiating parties, but the offer would guarantee the rights of those EU citizens who have settled in Britain.
(Read More)

EU summit opens with spat between President Macron and Visegrad Group
23 June 2017 - Radio Prague
Newly elected French President Emmanuel Macron has come into conflict with Visegrad Four members. Macron condemned Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic for their refusal to accept EU migrant quota plans - a decision he claims fundamentally undermines European values. The charge drew emotive responses from V4 leaders.
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EU leaders launch “historic” plan for joint military force
22 June 2017 – Politico
EU leaders have agreed on a plan for enhanced defense cooperation that could lead to a joint European military force. The plan would activate a mechanism from the Lisbon Treaty of 2009 that allows for an opt-in approach, thus allowing members to launch joint security projects without the approval of all 27 member states. European Council President Donald Tusk deemed the move a “historic step” that would engender deeper EU defense integration.
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Merkel’s praise sets tone for Macron debut among European peers
22 June 2017 – Bloomberg
At the EU leaders’ summit in Brussels, German Chancellor Angela Merkel announced that she and French President Emmanuel Macron will present detailed plans for expanded German-French cooperation within the next three months. Merkel applauded Macron for giving Europe renewed purpose and a surge of creativity. Neither leader named any specific projects, which could be a reflection of differing priorities between the independent Macron and the fiscally conservative Merkel.
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EU and NATO commanders: Kosovo's ethnic tensions and potential for violence rising
22 June 2017 – IHS Jane’s Defense Weekly
The current NATO mission to Kosovo, KFOR, includes 4,350 troops form 31 nations. The security situation there is worsening as tensions rise between ethnic groups, to the point that a rapid shift to violence could occur. Both KFOR, and EUFOR Althea to Bosnia, have been crucial to keeping peace in the region.
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EU countries compete to host London-based agencies after Brexit
22 June 2017 – The Guardian
European leaders are expected to compete over the future location of EU agencies previously based in London, which will be the first test of the EU’s post-Brexit unity. The bloc is insisting that the European Medicines Agency and the European Banking Authority find new homes elsewhere in the EU after the UK leaves. These agencies are both prestigious and boost visitor traffic for hotels and local business, thus setting the stage for an EU member states’ battle for securing the agencies.
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EU leaders to weigh terrorism, defense ties, migration
22 June 2017 – Associated Press
Ahead of a very controversial European conference, European leaders are making statements in solidarity with Brussels as the EU starts divorce talks with the UK. European Council President Donald Tusk wrote that he believed that the EU should be the solution, not the problem to Europe’s problems, and French President Emmanuel Macron said that Europe a la carte is a fantasy.
(Read More)

Report: Western Balkans route not closed, just diverted via Bulgaria
22 June 2017 - Euractiv
When the EU made its deal with Turkey to house migrants, the Balkan route did not close as commonly thought. A new report suggests that 10,000 migrants are stranded in Serbia and Bulgaria. Given the recent development of the Central European Defense Cooperation, whose main focus is to force migrants to apply for asylum outside of the EU bloc, tackling this issue is once again a top priority for European leaders.(Read More)

Brexit: Pro-leave Twitter bots played “strategic role” in EU referendum result, says Oxford University study
22 June 2017 – The Independent
According to a new study from Oxford University, both bots and trolls worked to spread propaganda and manipulate social media users’ political views prior to the EU referendum last June. The report states that bots “played a small but strategic role” in shaping Twitter conversations during the lead up to the UK’s EU referendum. The study also states that the outcome of the 2016 U.S. Presidential election was also affected in this way.
(Read More)

European court: Police can’t circumvent Schengen with “random” checks
21 June 2017 – Deutsche Welle
On Wednesday, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled that the German federal police are no longer allowed to use baseless identification checks near borders as a way to circumvent Schengen rules concerning free travel. The ECJ ruled that random police checks cannot be used as border control measures in the Schengen area if it creates a system similar to that of the controls before the Schengen Agreement was signed. However, the court did state that Germany’s federal police could continue to demand identification for those within 30 kilometers of international borders if deemed “proportional” and done to prevent illegal entry into the country.
(Read More)

Former DHS chief warns Russians will continue to target U.S. elections
21 June 2017 – NBC News
After being questioned by a panel of House members, a former U.S. Department of Homeland Security chief said that the hacks of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) were Putin’s doing. With more evidence coming in from 21 states that their elections were tampered with, this official said he was saddened to hear that news of this only came to the forefront after the DNC was hacked.
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Small EU states meet amid search to fill post-Brexit void
21 June 2017 – EU Observer
Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte is hosting officials from small and mid-sized EU countries ahead of the summit in Brussels on Thursday. The impeding exit of Britain from the bloc has left the remaining members searching for new alliances. The meeting on Wednesday was attended by representatives from nine countries, each part of regional groups within the bloc (Nordic, Baltic, and Benelux). This mini-summit is nothing new, but could demonstrate a possible shift in alliances due to Brexit.
(Read More)

Brexit dominates May’s program as manifesto pledges ditched
21 June 2017 – Bloomberg
During her speech on Wednesday, Queen Elizabeth II outlined the legislative program the House of Commons will follow during its two-year term. Brexit will dominate the program with the government planning eight new laws to ease the UK’s exit from the EU. The bills will encompass topics from immigration to fisheries, which are presented to ensure that the government is aiming to secure the best possible deal from the Brexit process. This program underlines Prime Minister May’s fragility after the outcome of the general election seeing as she must stick to measures that she can win support for across party lines.
(Read More)

Ukraine's Poroshenko says will sign defense deals with USA soon
21 June 2017 - Reuters
On Wednesday, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko told the news agency Interfax Ukraine that the U.S. and Ukraine will soon sign a number of agreements boosting defense cooperation. These agreements will “includ[e] an agreement on defense procurement and an agreement on military-technical cooperation.” Poroshenko also said that U.S. Defense Secretary Jim Mattis and Vice President Mike Pence told him that key members of Trumpʼs administration will visit Kiev in the next two to three months.
(Read More)

Explosive TATP used in Brussels Central Station attack, initial exam shows
21 June 2017 – CNN
Belgian authorities identified the individual behind yesterday’s attack on the rail station Gare Centraal in the heart of Brussels. The only person injured in the attack was the attacker who was shot. Gendarmerie on patrol gave accounts of the attacker saying phrases linked to jihad. The official statement said that there was reason to believe that the attacker was connected to Daesh, or ISIL, and had explosives at his residence.
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New EU laws make UK’s complex Brexit ever more difficult
20 June 2017 – Financial Times
In the year since the Brexit referendum, the EU has introduced 700 new laws which have been instituted in Britain. This demonstrates the scale and complexity of the Brexit process. On average, 60 EU regulations and directives have been added to the British statute book every month since the referendum, which adds to the approximate 19,000 EU regulations, directives, and other rules that are already a part of British law.
(Read More)

Trump meets Ukraine's president, U.S. adds to Russia sanctions
20 June 2017 – U.S. News and World Report
U.S. President Donald Trump sat down with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko in the oval office on Tuesday and expressed support for a peaceful resolution to the conflict in eastern Ukraine, but said nothing about Russiaʼs role. Trump said “a lot of progress has been made” between the U.S. and Ukraine and that the pair had “very, very good discussions.” In a statement issued after Trump's meeting, the White House said the two also discussed President Poroshenkoʼs reform agenda and anti-corruption efforts.
(Read More)

The EU strengthens action in support of security of Mali and Sahel
20 June 2017 - Eurasia Review
The European Council adopted a decision on Tuesday to support the regionalization of EU Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) missions in the Sahel region, namely EUCAP Sahel Mali, EUCAP Sahel Niger, and EUTM Mali. The objectives of reinforcing a regional approach in the EU work in the region is to support cross-border cooperation in the Sahel and regional cooperation structures, and to enhance the national capacities of the G5 Sahel countries.
(Read More)

French ministers quit before Macron's “clean” reshuffle
20 June 2017 – AFP
One of French President Macron’s campaign promises was to clean up politics in his country but his Minister of Defense quit due to a scandal in her small party. Even though she was appointed less than a month ago, she felt that if she did not step down, she would not be helping any of Macron’s initiatives. All of this comes on the heels of a parliamentary election, and just before Macron reshuffles his cabinet.
(Read More)

Britain starts Brexit negotiations with EU; discusses orderly exit
19 June 2017 – Chicago Tribune
On Monday, formal Brexit talks began in Brussels with both sides stating that they will focus first on an orderly withdrawal, EU and UK citizens’ residency rights, the Northern Ireland border, and Britain’s exit bill. After the first day of negotiations, both EU negotiator Michel Barnier and his British counterpart David Davis highlighted the quick progress that they expected from the upcoming talks as well as the existence of major challenges to meet the March 2019 deadline. It appeared that the negotiations will mostly follow the EU’s conditions and future relations will only be dealt with after the divorce is settled.
(Read More)

The Latest: 6 Central Europe nations vow unity on migration
19 June 2017 – Associated Press
Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia have agreed to form a grouping called the Central European Defense Cooperation as a model for the rest of the EU. Details remain sparse, but the countries share the goal of limiting limit refugee flows into the region.
(Read More)

EU steps up global counter-terrorism drive
19 June 2017 – EU Observer
EU delegations in the Middle East, North Africa, the Western Balkans, Turkey, the Horn of Africa, the Sahel, and the Gulf will be receiving new counterterrorism staff to enhance EU efforts in this area. EU leaders are expected to discuss counterterrorism as a priority issue at a summit on Thursday and Friday.
(Read More)

EU extends sanctions against Russia over Crimea for a year
19 June 2017 – Associated Press
European attempts to stifle Russian plans in the Crimea include sanctions that have just been extended by one year. The sanctions ban the import of all products from Crimea and Sevestopol, halt all cruise stops and purchases of land, investment, telecoms, and energy. It is based on a refusal to formally recognize Russian claims to Crimea.
(Read More)

Russia warns U.S. its fighter jets are now potential target in Syria
19 June 2017 - The Guardian
In response to U.S. planes shooting down a Syrian air force jet on Sunday, Moscow announced on Monday that it would treat any plane from the U.S.-led coalition flying west of the Euphrates river as a potential target. The U.S. claims its planes were defending U.S.-backed forces seeking to capture the Islamic State capital of Raqqa in northeast Syria. The Russian foreign ministry said it responded to the attack by suspending its communications channel with U.S. forces - the channel was implemented 8 months ago and has served to prevent collisions and dangerous incidents in Syrian airspace.
(Read More)

Brexit talks kick Off in Brussels as May urged to soften stance
18 June 2017 - Bloomberg
On Monday, the formal Brexit negotiations started despite confusion over what the British government’s priorities are for its exit. EU chief negotiator Michel Barnier stated that the first round of talks must “tackle the uncertainties posed by Brexit.” The outcome from the UK’s general election has placed Prime Minister Theresa May’s position in doubt. However, the UK government is eager to win back sovereignty without harming its economy, while the EU’s main priority is to maintain regional stability and avoid rewarding Britain’s decision to leave as it might encourage other member states to follow suit.
(Read More)

Putin: New sanctions will “complicate” Russia-U.S. ties
17 June 2017 - Politico
Russian President Vladimir Putin warned on Saturday that new U.S. sanctions on Russia will damage ties between the two countries. The sanctions were passed by the U.S. Senate on Thursday in response to alleged Russian interference in the 2016 election. The sanctions target Russian individuals accused of corruption as well as key sectors of the Russian economy. Putin said that the sanctions “will of course complicate the Russian-American relationship,” but that it is too early to speak about a possible response.
(Read More)

France says U.S. must work with Europe, G7 over Russia sanctions
16 June 2017 – Reuters
On Friday, France’s foreign ministry argued that the U.S. should coordinate with countries in Europe and its G7 partners before implementing new sanctions on Russia. This statement comes a day after the U.S. Senate approved new measures against Moscow that could impact EU firms.
(Read More)

Spaniards most likely to want their own EU referendum, poll shows
16 June 2017 – The Local Spain
A new survey shows that while the majority of Spaniards are not likely to follow the UK out of the EU, the country is the most likely to push for a referendum on EU membership compared to other member states. When asked if Spain should leave the bloc, only 13% of Spaniards were in favor; however, when asked if the country should have a referendum on membership, 65% responded “yes.”
(Read More)

Post-mortem of Britain’s electoral upset
16 June 2017 - The Economist
Post-election statistics reveal that the failure of Prime Minister Theresa May’s snap elections owed in large part to high voter turnout, demographics, and concerns about Brexit. Last week’s elections were able to generate substantial interest among younger voters, especially those between the ages of 18 and 24 - most of whom voted for Labour. Moreover, 14% more voters between those ages participated than in 2015, and nearly 70% of the total electorate voted in what was the highest voter turnout since 1997.
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Europeans like the EU more since Brexit. Even the British
15 June 2017 – Time
According to a new poll by Pew Research Center, euroskepticism is on the decline in the EU almost a year after Britain voted to exit the bloc. The survey released by Pew on Thursday found that nine out of ten EU member states polled have a positive view of Brussels-based institutions. This poll includes citizens of the UK, where 54% view the EU favorably, which is around 10 points higher than it was in a similar poll from last year. In total, 63% of those surveyed have a favorable view of the EU.
(Read More)

Pay up, make nice if you want “soft Brexit,” EU to tell May
15 June 2017 – Reuters
EU negotiators insist that British Prime Minister Theresa May should agree to pay Britain’s exit bill and discontinue threats to leave without a deal if she would like to discuss a “softer Brexit” in negotiations. However, many EU leaders believe that speculating on whether there will be a “soft” or “hard” Brexit is premature since the Union will not discuss exit terms until the terms of the divorce are settled.
(Read More)

U.S. sanctions on Russia threaten European energy firms-Germany, Austria
15 June 2017 – The New York Times
On Thursday, both Germany and Austria criticized the U.S. Senate for approving new sanctions against Russia, saying that these measures could put European companies involved in Russian energy projects at risk for fines for breaching U.S. law. The Senate’s vote put into law sanctions that were previously imposed by presidential executive order. German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel and Austrian Chancellor Christian Kern stated that the sanctions would help secure U.S. energy jobs and threaten Russian gas deliveries to Europe, which the region depends on.
(Read More)

Lawmakers warn: some NATO allies still using Russian equipment
15 June 2017 - Washington Examiner
House Republican lawmaker Rep. Paul Cook  said on Thursday that some members of the NATO alliance are still dependent on Russia for military equipment for their air and ground forces, which makes it harder for the U.S. to count on them as allies. He said that the use of “Soviet-style” equipment is a complicating factor for U.S. policy as it leaves the eastern European NATO allies vulnerable to Russian aggression, in addition to complicating their efforts to fulfill Trumpʼs demand that they increase military spending. Cook went on to urge the Trump Administration to sell eastern European allies American military equipment that can replace the Russian weapons systems.
(Read More)

What we know about the congressional baseball shooting
15 June 2017 – ABC News
The shooter of Congressman Steve Scalise has been identified as James Hodgkinson, 66. Though his motives remain unclear, he posted several anti-Republican sentiments on social media. He was a one-time volunteer for former Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders. Scalise underwent his third major surgery Thursday morning since the attack.
(Read More)

Senate overwhelmingly votes to curtail Trump’s power to ease Russia sanctions
14 June 2017 – The Washington Post
The U.S. Senate voted to 97 to 2 to expand sanctions on Russia and to allow Congress to block efforts by President Donald Trump to unilaterally ease any sanctions on the country. The move follows statements by Secretary of State Rex Tillerson that sanctions could limit U.S. flexibility in managing U.S.-Russia relations.
(Read More)

Perks will stop if UK ends up staying in EU, says Guy Verhofstadt
14 June 2017 – The Guardian
Guy Verhofstadt, the European Parliament’s Brexit coordinator, stated that the UK is free to change its mind about exiting the EU - but the country would have to give up its current special perks, including the budget rebate. He stated that if the UK chooses to stay in the EU, it would be “a new Europe, a Europe without rebates, without complexity, with real powers and with unity.” Other special perks afforded to Britain include a permanent opt-out from joining the euro and the ability to selectively follow justice and home affairs policies.
(Read More)

 



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