Early Leaders

Sir Norman Angell was an English Labour Party MP, journalist, and prolific writer. The author of The Great Illusion and one of the principal founders of the anti-militaristic Union of Democratic Control. Angell was an ardent advocate for peace and greater cooperation among nations, winning a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in 1933. Read more. Publications.

Theodore Achilles was a career diplomat, serving as a representative to several governments-in-exile during World War II, Ambassador to Guatemala, and US Vice Deputy of the North Atlantic Council in London, among other positions. In addition to helping draft the North Atlantic Treaty that served as the basis for NATO, he served as a director and Vice Chairman of the Atlantic Council of the United States and a governor of the Atlantic Institute. Read More. Publications.

William Clayton was an American businessman and public servant. During World War II, he worked for the federal government's Import-Export Bank, working to secure goods and materiel for the United States and to deny them to the Axis Powers. He served as Assistant Secretary and then Undersecretary of State for Economic Affairs under Presidents Roosevelt and Truman, where he promoted free trade and greater economic cooperation between the United States and its allies. Read More. Publications.

Gardner Cowles, Jr. was an internationalist who toured Russia with presidential candidate Wendell Willkie in 1942. During World War II, Cowles directed the domestic division of the Office of War Information. In 1959, Cowles founded Puerto Rico's first English-language newspaper called the San Juan Star, which quickly won a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing. During the early 1960s, Cowles also helped bring attention to the Civil Rights movement through images in the pages of Look magazine. From 1978 until his death in 1985, he devoted his time to Cowles Charitable Trust.

Dorothy Canfield Fisher was an author and advocate for educational reform. During World War I, she worked with blinded soldiers on the Western Front and established a home for displaced French children. Her writing and educational work inspired the Dorothy Canfield Fisher Children's Book Award.

Sen. Estes Kefauver was a US Representative and Senator from Tennessee as well as the Democratic nominee for Vice-President in 1956. Senator Kefauver was known for his investigations into organized crime and his tireless advocacy of racial equality and consumer and worker protections, positions that often put him at odds with powerful figures in Washington and in his home state.

Thomas W. Lamont was a prominent American banker and served as a US financial advisor abroad. He served as one of two Treasury Department representatives during the 1919 Paris negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Versailles.

Gov. Herbert H. Lehman was Governor of New York from 1933-1942 and a US Senator from 1949-1957. During World War II, he served as Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations for the State Department and Director-General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.

Claire Booth Luce was an American playwright, editor, journalist, politician and Cold War-era ambassador to Italy. She was one of the first women ever to serve in the US Congress, representing Connecticut's 4th district from 1943-1946. While in Congress, she helped establish the Atomic Energy Commission.

Henry Luce, III was a journalist, publisher of Time magazine, and a prominent philanthropist. He served as an assistant to Joseph P. Kennedy in his capacity as a member of the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of Government (also known as the Hoover Commission). His wide-ranging philanthropic interests were pursued primarily through the Henry Luce Foundation.

Sen. Eugene J. McCarthy was a US Representative and Senator from the state of Minnesota. He served in the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department during WWII. In 1968, he shook up the American political landscape with a primary challenge to incumbent president Lyndon Johnson. In addition to his support for a number of political and social causes, he is also remembered for his poetry.

Justice Owen J. Roberts was a US Supreme Court Justice from 1930 to 1945. He led the commission that investigated the Pearl Harbor attack. In his retirement years, he worked to strengthen global governance, helping draft the 1945 Dublin Declaration which recommended the transformation of the UN General Assembly into a global legislature and which led the formation of the United World Federalists.

Elmo Roper was an innovative public opinion researcher. He was the first to devise the scientific public opinion poll, bringing rigor to a field that had been dominated by guesswork. As an advocate for stronger transatlantic relations, he was a member of the US Citizen's Commission on NATO and served as a delegate to a 1962 Paris convention on the idea of Atlantic Union.